Ben Brereton and Joe Nuttall both bagged braces as Rovers breezed into the last 16 of the Premier League Cup at the Keepmoat Stadium
An early own goal got Rovers up and running in chilly conditions, before goals from Brereton and Nuttall completed a comfortable half, despite Max Watters pulling a goal back late on.
But the visitors' dominance continued throughout the second 45 minutes, with further strikes from the deadly duo earning an emphatic win.
A further positive, particularly for Tony Mowbray, would have been seeing Jacob Davenport complete the full 90 minutes in Yorkshire, as the former Manchester City midfielder stepped up his return to fitness.
Damien Johnson handed starts to Brereton, Davenport and Harry Chapman in an exciting-looking line-up for the must-win clash.
The visitors started off brightly, and after Chapman clipped the outside of the post, Johnson's charges took the lead.
An inviting cross from Dan Butterworth, who lined up on the right, took a deflection off a Donny defender and nestled into the corner after only seven minutes of play.
A good start was made even better just three minutes later when an inch-perfect pass over the top from Davenport was latched onto by Brereton, and the frontman confidently went through on goal before slotting past Declan Ogley.
Rovers were dominant, and Chapman went close to adding to the tally after Butterworth had initially stung the palms of Ogley.
The control was rewarded just before the half hour mark as Nuttall got in on the act. Following expert wing play from Chapman, Brereton flicked the ball into the striker's path, and he tucked beyond Ogley and into the net.
It was a completely dominant display from Johnson's youngsters, but with pretty much their first opportunity, the hosts found a route back into the game with the last kick of the half.
After Max Watters was played in, he managed to tuck beyond Charlie Albinson and into the back of the net to grab a goal back and make things interesting with the second half still to come.
Rovers kept up the tempo and good work from Nuttall and Chapman saw the winger burst through before being denied by Ogley.
And moments later Ogley was in the right place again to deny Brereton's low strike before Nuttall smashed the rebound over the upright.
Brereton had his brace and Rovers' fourth of the night with 18 minutes left, with a well taken finish.
An excellent first touch from the striker got him away from the defender, and he went on to round Ogley before notching from an acute angle to complete his brace in fine fashion.
Butterworth and then Brereton had chances in quick succession before Nuttall slotted home a fifth Rovers goal after skipping past Ogley and slotting into an empty net.
That was to be Nuttall's final involvement as he, Chapman and Brereton were replaced with nine minutes remaining at a chilly Keepmoat.
Butterworth was denied getting his name on the scoresheet by the legs of the impressive Ogley, but it didn't matter in the end as victory saw Rovers secure a spot in the last 16 stage of the competition for a third consecutive year.
Doncaster Rovers U23s: Ogley, Walker, Horton, Prior (c), McLean, Blaney, Barnett (Hassani, 81), Beestin, Boocock (Watson, 81), Gibbons (Allen, 60), Watters.
Unused substitutes: Bottomley, Foulkes.
Booked: Blaney, 27.
Rovers U23s: Albinson, Carter, Thompson, Davenport, Magloire (c), Doyle, Butterworth, Buckley, Nuttall (Mols, 81), Brereton (Vale, 81), Chapman (Rankin-Costello, 81).
Unused substitutes: Eastham, Annesley.
Goals: OG, 7, Brereton, 10, 72, Nuttall, 28, 81.
Booked: Doyle, 32
Referee: Matthew Dicicco.