The 22-year-old joins Rovers on a six-month loan deal running until January 2014.
Cairney made 14 appearances for the Tigers last season as they were promoted to the Premier League.
The Scotland Under-21 international joined Hull as a 16-year-old from Leeds in 2007 and was named the club’s Young Player of the Year the following season.
He featured on 14 occasions during the Tigers’ 2009-10 top flight campaign and has made 70 appearances for his parent club.
A technically gifted player, Cairney has won six caps for his country's under-21 set-up.
Cairney is eligible to play for Rovers in this season's Capital One Cup.