Rovers trailed by two goals midway through the second half, but a stirring comeback just fell short against the Scottish club.
After a close first half the home side were handed the lead through a dubious penalty decision. Goalkeeper Andrew Fisher claimed a high ball into the box, but the referee ruled that a Rangers man had been impeded and the resulting penalty was converted.
On 68 minutes the hosts doubled their lead with a goal in which Rovers should have done better. Failure to close down an attacker lead to a long-range effort sneaking home.
With nine minutes remaining Rovers grabbed a goal that their spirited display deserved. Sam Joel's good run ended with the forward slamming his shot against the crossbar but Lewis Mansell was on hand to react the quickest to score.
Rovers went close to levelling in the final throes as Joel fired narrowly wide, but it was a pleasing display despite the result for coach David Lowe.
"It was a tough, competitive game against Rangers' Under 20s," said Lowe. "It was a good workout for us against an older team.
"We finished the game strongly which shows that our fitness levels are good and overall it was a pleasing performance against an experienced team."
ROVERS: Fisher (sub Wilson 46 mins), Nyambe, Pirretas, Scott, Platt, Tomlinson, Edo (sub Mehew 74 mins), Joel (c), Howarth (sub Callaway 68 mins), Mehew (sub Hardcastle 46 mins), Callaway (sub Mansell 46 mins).
Sub not used: Pierce.