Rovers had to settle for a point at Oakwell after being pegged back by Barnsley.
Gary Bowyer's side started strongly but wasted a host of chances before Barnsley had even got going, yet it was the home side who took the lead when Nick Proschwitz fired home his first goal for the reds just before the half hour.
Rovers responded with two impressive goals before the break. Tom Cairney lashing home from 25 yards before Rudy Gestede grabbed his fourth goal in five outings on the stroke of half time.
But the Rovers that were so dominant in the first half didn't reappear in the second and that allowed the hosts to build up a head of steam that culminated in the Tykes being awarded a penalty when Liam Lawrenson was pushed over by Tommy Spurr.
The Rovers players and officials were aghast as they were once again on the wrong end of such a soft decision, Chris O'Grady converting from 12 yards.
Rovers had chances in the closing stages with Jordan Rhodes twice going close, as did Grant Hanley and Joshua King, but in the end a point was all they came away with.
Two changes were made from the side that drew with Derby County at the weekend as David Dunn and Lee Williamson came into the starting line-up.
Chris Taylor dropped to the substitute's bench whilst Ben Marshall was sidelined by the ankle ligament injury sustained in Saturday's game.
It was a positive start from the visitors as they went at Barnsley from the off. Just five minutes in and a strong forward run by David Dunn saw the ball break for Tom Cairney but Luke Steele did well to keep the ball out, diving to his left to make the save.
The Barnsley man was called upon just two minutes later as Rovers maintained their early dominance, a cross from Tommy Spurr saw Jordan Rhodes flattened in the box, the ball coming out to Gestede but the Tykes' 'keeper saved with his legs. Despite the goalkeeper saving, Rovers were still left wondering how a penalty decision had eluded them.
Chances continued to flow towards the Barnsley goal, Gestede was denied by a block, Dunn just wide with a cheeky chip. Then Dunn found Adam Henley on the overlap, his cross went all the way to Spurr whose shot deflects off Rhodes but Steele made the save.
It wasn't until the 17th minute that the hosts threatened but they very nearly opened the scoring. Nick Proschwitz beating the offside trap to find himself with just Paul Robinson to beat but the former England man made a fantastic one-handed save.
On 23 minutes Rudy Gestede missed a glorious chance to give Rovers the lead when he rose highest to meet a Cairney corner from the left, but somehow the Frenchman, so powerful in the air, headed wide.
That miss would prove costly as Rovers' positive start was undone with Barnsley's best move of the half. Dale Jennings, making a rare start for Barnsley, crossed from the right to where debutant Nick Proschwitz slammed home from six yards.
To their credit Rovers didn't let their heads drop and resumed their attacking intent straight away, Gestede heading an Adam Henley cross just wide.
Rovers' eventually got their reward with a 36th minute equaliser. David Dunn and Rudy Gestede showed great tenacity to retain possession and as the ball broke it bounced up perfectly for Tom Cairney and he lashed it home from 25 yards, the ball flying over the helpless Steele.
The strike was Cairney's second in the league this season, his other coming in the corresponding fixture at Ewood back in August.
A minute before the break Rovers completed their turnaround with a second goal.
It was in no small part to the tenacious run of David Dunn who advanced on goal before slipping the ball through to Rudy Gestede who fired home at the near post for the perfect end to the half.
Rovers started the second half where they left off in the first with Dunn threading the ball through to Tom Cairney but the midfielder fired narrowly over. However from that point onwards the flow of the game was very much towards Paul Robinson as Barnsley showed renewed enthusiasm.
Jim O'Brien was narrowly wide before Brek Shea played in Proschwitz who forced another fine save from Paul Robinson, Matt Kilgallon on hand to clear the danger. After that it was Chris O'Grady's turn to fire wide, nodding Shea's centre the wrong side of the post.
However on 69 minutes Barnsley were handed a way back into the game with yet another contentious penalty decision against Rovers.
There seemed little connection as Tommy Spurr closed in on substitute Liam Lawrence, but the experienced midfielder went to ground, the linesman on the near side indicating a penalty.
Chris O'Grady stepped up and made no mistake from the spot.
It then got worse for Rovers when for the second time in as many games a player was stretchered off. Lee Williamson the unfortunate man, sustaining a blow to the head in an aerial battle.
The closing stages, including nine minutes of added time could have gone either way as both sides went close.
It was Rovers who had more of the chances, Rhodes fired into the side netting from a tight angle, whilst Grant Hanley saw a glancing header deflect wide.
Williamson's replacement Josh King then created space for a shooting chance on 92 minutes, cutting in from the left to fire goalwards, but Barnsley man of the match Luke Steele kept the ball out.
But the best of the lot fell to Jordan Rhodes, however from Tommy Spurr's centre the 16-goal man poked wide of goal.
Barnsley weren't without their opportunities in the closing stages also, Nick Proschwitz headed wide at the near post whilst Paul Robinson had to claw over a Jim O'Brien cross that almost crept home.
After dominating the first half, creating a dozen chances, Rovers will have been disappointed to have let their lead slip, but it is another point to the tally.
BARNSLEY: Steele, Ramage, Kennedy, Nyatanga (sub Cywka 55 mins), Cranie (c), Dawson (sub Digby 46 mins), O'Brien, Shea, Jennings (sub Lawrence 62 mins), O'Grady, Proschwitz.
Subs not used: Dibble (GK), McCourt, M'voto, Noble-Lazarus.
Goals: Proschwitz 29 mins, O'Grady (pen) 69 mins.
ROVERS: Robinson, Henley, Hanley (c), Kilgallon, Spurr, Cairney, Lowe, Williamson (sub King 77 mins), Dunn (sub Taylor 64 mins), Gestede, Rhodes.
Subs not used: Eastwood (GK), Kane, Olsson, Morris, Mahoney.
Goals: Cairney 36 mins, Gestede 44 mins.
Attendance: 9703 (including 720 Rovers fans).